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Margulis, M. (2012). Electricity and magnetism. PHILICA.COM Article number 324.

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Electricity and magnetism

Milia Margulisconfirmed user (Sonochemistry, Andreev Acoustics Institute)

Published in physic.philica.com

Abstract
The model of electrical charge is proposed. Accordingly this model the charge continuously irradiates ether flows. Interaction between charges is a result of interaction of ether flows.
It was shown that force lines of electric charge and magnet have different properties. The model of propagation of electrical current in the metal conductor was proposed. On the base of experimental data it was proposed that the electrical current is not the “directed electron flow”, as it is taken now, but the flow of electrons and etherons. In the frame of the proposed model the formula for the work of electrical current, the formula for a resistance to electrical current and the formula of the Ohm law were obtained. It was shown that at the different conditions of electrical current run on one electron accounts for ? ? 5•105 etherons.

Article body

Introduction

Now physics as a science on the sructure of the around world stay in the deep crisis though it is not always realized. One of the reason of this situation is the negation of ether as a media filling all the space. For the explanation of interaction of electrical charges and magnets now the official science uses brightly submissions on the participation of "physical vacuum", different "fields", "force lines," "virtual particles" and so on. All these terms interpret as a "specific state of a matter" that "need not more detailed consideration" [1]. But consideration of these questions just must be the subject of the exclusive attention of physics. Now the physical science cannot explain not only the cense of pointed terms, but other many important questions:

  • - the nature of interaction of magnet with electrical current,
  • - what is the electrical current,
  • - what is the electrical field,
  • - the derivation of the formula of Coulomb' law is absent,
  • - it cannot explain the reason of the nucleus forces arising,
  • - it cannot explain, why all particles, bodies, planets in Universe move, and so on.

The theory which answers all these and a range of other questions is developed in our works [2,3]. In these works interaction of charged particles is considered as the interaction of ether flows. At this approach is not necessary to use the pointed conceptions, and considered phenomena become more simple and of one place.

In this work interaction of electrical charges is considered and, as an example, some properties of electrical current are considered.

                                §1. Model of electrical charge

The discovery of electricity turned out to be the discovery of a range of objects which do not follow almost laws of Newton' mechanics, and this demand for the description some new approaches. That is why for the description of the interaction of electrical charges, magnets, electrical currents and so on, some new notions were introduced: "electrical field", "magnet field", "force lines", "electrical charge" and many others. Now it is accepted that two types of electrical charges exist: positive and negative. Charges are called "positive" if they arise at a glass shabby on silk and "negative" charges arise at ebonite shabby on fur [4]. On this model "positive" or "negative" charges are created by the superfluity in the body of the protons or electrons correspondingly. Super flow charge may be created in the local field or in all body. Let's remember that accordingly to our model, electrons having a "negative" charge and protons a "positive" charge, have a form of Mobius Band (MB), but the twisting of these MB proceed in different directions; they active interact with ether and magnet. With help of a test charge it is possible to determine the direction of considered charge action. The "sign" of a charge is determined by the direction of corresponding MB [2]. By this naturally present moving continuously with "heat" rate and with a rate near to the light speed [3] ether particles, etherons.

       At the development of the theory of structure of matter it was necessary to work out the model of charged particles. This was especially necessary that the smallest particles of substance consist from charged particles, electrons and protons. Neutrons turn out to be unstable particles; period of their semi transformation in proton and neutron is 15,3 min. The base positions of this model of electrical charge can be presented in the next view:

- electrons having a "negative" charge and protons having a "positive" charge are of the shape of Mobius Band (MB);

- twisting of these MB is realized in different sizes and they active interact with ether and magnet;

- "sign" of charge is determined by the direction of twisting of corresponding Mobius Band [2];

- this process naturally present continuously moving with "heat" rate, and correspondingly with the rate near to the speed of light [3] particles of ether, etherons;

- charged particles differ from uncharged thus they have a shape of Mobius Bands; this leads to they have one surface;

- in the ether media as a result of chaotic and rare shocks of etherons charged particles obtain rotation, "positive" and "negative" charges rotate in different sizes;

- in the ether media rotating charged particles create continuous, undamped by time ether flows;

- electric charge is a conglomerate of single charges, and at usual conditions radial flows of etherons go out from each of single charges.

Thus, electrical charges occupy some volume, from which etherons are radiated

 

 

   Fig. 1. Picture of glow of ether by electrical charge

continuously and permanently (fig. 1). It is also possible to imagine etherons permanently absorbed by the charge. Why proceed the continuous and permanently (until the charge exists) movement of etherons relatively charged particles? Accordingly to the proposed theory, as a result of collisions of etherons with the charged particles, which have a shape of MB and for this reason have one surface, a charged particle, electron for example, obtains a continuous rotation (more detailed these questions are considered in [3]). The axe of the rotation coincides with the axe of symmetry of the particle. So, at the arising of charges, containing several elementary particles, the ether flows form analogous "force lines", as it is presented on the fig. 2.

Accordingly to used model, each electrical charge is an aggregate of excess electrons or protons, which may exist unlimited time and continuously radiate etherons in space (until the excess of electrical charges exists). Ethers particles move chaotic in the viscosity less medium, "heat" rate of their movement is ?. Continuous etherons movement is a result of continuous rotation of charged particles (mainly electrons). Etherons are  very small: by mass etheron is on 9 order of dimension less then electron [2,3]. That is why they penetrate without absorption through any non ferromagnetic materials.

Interaction between ether flows in many relations is analogous to interaction of gas flows, with the difference that at ether flows interaction the flows mixing do not proceed. Number of experiments has shown that "force lines" radiate from one point to infinity or come together from infinity to one point (fig.2). For the model of

 

Fig. 2. Picture of force lines for pointed charges:  a - positive, b - negative

 electron or proton as a small ball or a point, as it is accepted now, these "force lines" is impossible to explain. Probably, for this reason M. Faraday, ho introduced the first the conception on the force lines and correctly determined their run, could not ground their physical sense. To our mind, force lines may be presented as ether flows [3]. Exactly these ether flows, which are formally analogous to "force lines", providing interaction of charges [3], at this conception particles of charges is necessary to present as Mobius Bands. It is necessary to note, that more complicated cases exist, when some peculiarities of force lines are very difficult to understand.

The situation becomes less of understand and more intricate at comparison of the

 

Fig. 3. Force lines around: a - electrical charges, b - constant magnet and            electrical charge

 force lines of electrical charges and usual magnet (fig. 3a,b). For example, at the distribution of electrical charge and a magnet like on the fig. 3b, negative charge, accordingly to configuration of force lines, must approach to a magnet. But experiments have shown, that motionless negative charge will not approach to the magnet (fig. 3b), though these ether flows which are formally analogous to force lines, provide the interaction of charges similary like between opposite charges (fig. 3a). That is why it is possible to conclude that magnet and electrical force lines have different properties. It is possible to note, that A. Einstein ([1], v.4., p.439) also considered force line of electrical charges and magnets. But he not only did not remark the difference between them and in every way wrote that "they have absolutely the same character" and from this wrong conclusion did important theoretical deductions.

     What is the reason of different properties from magnet and static electrical charge? In the work [3] model explaining the reasons of this difference was proposed. It is necessary to ground also other principle differences in properties of these force lines. Let's consider the ether flow from electric charge, containing

 

Fig. 4. Force lines around: a - micro charge, b - usual pointed charge

several single electrons (fig. 4a), and force lines from some bigger pointed charge (fig. 4b). Our analysis have shown, that force lines from static electric charges do not form round screw flows of ether and that is why they do not form Lorenz' forces, which are directed under right angle to the direction of the charges movement [2]. It may be imagined that the radial flow of etherons moves with the comparatively small rate v << c. Force lines, or ether flows relatively microscopic static charges are

 

——————————————————

* We use the term "micro charge" instead of "pointed charge" to exclude the proposition that it is formed by the pointed electron.

 

radial, and they may be presented by the scheme of fig. 4a. For the microscopic charge, containing a few electrons, ether flows are radial, and round flows partially destroy (fig. 4a). Microscopic* or pointed charge is possible to consider as charge that takes up small enough volume.

Usual electrical charges may be imagined as a number of pointed electrical charges oriented chaotically (fig. 4b). For them round ether flows equal zero. Thus, force lines for electrical charges (fig. 4b) equal zero. Ether flows relatively motionless

 

Fig. 5. Ether flows from: a - electromagnet, b - constant magnet

electromagnet move with rate v ≈ ? (fig. 5a) (see later). It is necessary to note, that ether moving with a rate ? relatively the electromagnet, corresponds to ether movement relatively a particle, but in the opposite direction. At the using of the constant magnet the scheme does not changes, as the rate of electron relative ether is also high (fig. 5b): in the case one use the rotation rate of electron of metal on the orbit around atomic nucleus [2]. The round ether flows relative magnet create the tensity H, which is keep in the limit of magnet domain and propagates later. Magnet

domain has shown on fig. 5b in a view of secluded broken line. It differs from the flows, create by continuous, static charges. The round ether flows arise at using the 

constant magnet.

Action of magnet is a result of the action of a great mass of electrons, and this is a reason that its action is much stronger then action of super flow charges, high stationary concentration of them at usual conditions is very difficult to provide. In

 

Fig. 6. Forces arising at interaction of two conductors with electrical current, directed deep into picture

the fig. 6 are presented ether flows from two conductors with electric current (Amper's  effect), electric currents directed in the same direction. Experimental data and theory [2] have shown that Lorenz forces FL lead to closing of the conductors (fig. 6). At the same time electrostatic Coulomb's forces directed to their attraction. Experiment shows that the Lorenz' force is much more (FL >> FC) then Coulomb's forces, and electrostatic forces may be neglected.

Action of electrical current in many relations is analogous to the action of flow of electrons around atomic nucleus. Ether flows from magnet differs from flows, created by stationary electric charges, as the rate of etherons from magnet is very high (about c). These flows lead to formation near magnets remarkable axe and round ether flows; near stationary electrical charges, which are created in space by motionless or moving with relatively small rate electrical charges, only axe flows of ether form. Electrical force lines arise between electrons and other charged particles not  dependent on their rate.

Model of formation of round ether flows, to our mind, may be presented in a view of the following hypothesis. This effect can be connected with the "hydrodynamic specialties" of ether flow, arising from the moving electrons or other electrical charges (fig. 7). Let's for the beginning consider motionless electron or a charge

Fig. 7. Model of formation of radiate and round ether flows

moving with a small rate. At v ≤ v1 (fig.7) a very small etheron flow forms from the electron. At increasing the electron rate v1  ≤  v  ≤ v2 etheron flow from charges increases. At high enough rate of electron v ≈ v3 the flow of etherons is already does not "put in" the Mobius Band, and on its borders turbulences of ether are created. At the later increasing the rate of charged particles flow at v ≈ v4, round flow of ether forms, this flow corresponds the "twisting" of particle.

Electrical current in many processes is similar to the electrons flow. For example, the movement of electron from the constant magnet creates the etherons flow which is similar to the flow of etherons through which electrical current runs. It is necessary to note, that for the considering model, when the charged bodies continuously radiate ether flows during a very long time, using of terms: "electrical  field", "magnetic field", "force lines", "electric charge" etc. is superfluous. In this conclusion is possible to make sure extra.

§2. Model of considered phenomena

Let's consider, what kind of assumptions do we made at developing the theory of matter construction? They are only three, and they seem to us as quite natural:

1. "Heat" rate of the ether particles (etherons) is equal the speed of light c.

2. The ether viscosity is zero.

3. Electrons, protons and other charged particles are Mobius Bands.

The first two assumptions are quite usual, working ones, and they meet in many works at analysis of ether role as a media, filling all the space. The third assumption was valid by us at consideration of magnet interaction with electrical current and studying the mechanism of Lorenz' force arising. That is why, as we know, this hypothesis did not meet in other works. But namely the third assumption turns out to be the key sours at the working out of many fundamental questions of physics [3]. It is possible to remember that in 19 century three mathematicians independently in different countries - Lobachevsky, Riman  and Boyai - have changed in the Euclid' geometry the postulate on parallel straights to see, that will be obtained. As a result of this analysis, some interesting and unusual was obtained: three non Euclid' geometries.

 "Divine" of the complicated shape of the base elementary particles: electrons and protons turn out to be a very difficult problem. Owing to this solution, now is not necessary to change a model of ether. The simplest model of ether was enough to decide many problems. During working out the theory of construction of matter the necessity to complicate the model of ether did not appear. This demonstrates that presiding assumptions are correct. At the interaction of two single charges, electrons

 

 

Fig. 8. Interaction of single electrons: a - contrary flows, b - passing flows  and formation of electron pair

 for example, electrons attract, as they form contrary ether flows (fig. 8a). It may be imagined that at the rotation of one electron on 180 degrees ether flows turn out consecutives, and character of interaction should change (fig. 8b). These arguments give the possibility to consider that determined "positive" and "negative" charges are not exists as all processes are determined by rotation of corresponding elementary particle at interaction with other particles. That is why it will be possible to reject several ideas: "positive", "negative", "charge", in spite of  their convenience and plainness. This will give the possibility to understand the nature nucleus forces and mechanism of their arising [3]. If it would be possible to create a microscopic "tube" inside which electrons with the consecutive etheron flows, the attraction aroused between electrons on very small distances. This process was analogous to arising of nucleus forces.

But usually a distance between charges is much larger then the diameter of a tube in which the ether flow can be remained (this effect was described in [3]). Besides, electrons have not a neutral elementary particle, similary with proton and neutron. At the intermediate mutual position of moving electron the configuration is unstable, each electron feel the side action of a charge, and as a result they take a position in so manner that axes of ether flows orient approximately in one site. Accordingly to the analysis, the attraction not only of electrons and protons is possible, but also the attraction of two isolated like charges. Electrons, in contrast to proton, do not have neutral particle with the same mass (like neutron), which would be possible to "compact" combination electron - electron [3]. That is why ether flows between electrons cannot create a stable isolated system, analogous to atom nucleus, they disperse in a space and cannot be consolidated.

                                        §3. Electric current in metals

Electric current is a widely distributed substance. It is widely used in science, technique, it is studied in a number of books, manuals, journal articles etc. The opinion that electrical current (for simplicity it is possible to speak about the constant current) "is a directed movement of bearer of electric charges" [5], but some experimental data show that it is not so simply.

The first, the rate of electron movement in the conductor does not precede some  mm.s-1, the rate of electrons in vacuum is order 50 km.s-1 (at not so high stress), but the rate of electrons in metals at the electrical current proceeds with the rate in 5000 time more then even at the movement of electrons in vacuum! That is why it may be proposed that the distribution of electric current in metals (with the rate of light) proceeds by another mechanism, i.e. by the mechanism, in which ether participates.

The second, on the ether participation in the electrical current running can indicate the fact that around the conductor with a current as a result of interaction of electron with ether particles axe and round ether flows form [3]. Indeed, if the electrical current was electrons flow only, the arising of ether flows around the conductor with current would be very difficult to explain, as electrons during the propagation of the electrical current cannot go out from the metal and form ether round flows (due to the principle of near action, interaction of electrons and ether is possible only at their contact). Ether also cannot go into the conductor, form the round ether flows, and when after the current runs, leave the conductor. But nobody intend to explain these effects. Existing manuals elegantly avoid these questions and virtuously use and apply at any convenient case a term "field" and point that "around the conductor with the current at once the electromagnetic field of corresponding construction arises". Other words, for explanation of any phenomenon one use the fact of existence of this phenomenon. In the frame of the proposed theory, moving electrons rotate around its axe and create rotating ether flow, moving with the rate c. This screw ether flow directed to the right angle to the direction of the electron movement.

The third, accordingly to the proposed model of electron, the etherons flow permanently pass through each electron, and naturally at the electrical current formation this connection of electron with etherons remains.

Accordingly to experimental data, a resistance of metals to electrical current is comparatively small, but resistance of ether is very high. Due to the taken conceptions, propagation of electrical current in metals proceeds by the principle of push of electrons by electrons, similary to liquids molecules push at the sound propagation in a liquid. During this process no electron shifts on the remarkable distance. Differently on metals, in the discharge tube, in vacuum electrons move real. It is possible to consider two important experiments, in which the "construction" of electrical current was studied.

Rikke passed electrical current about hundred amperes during several days through the cupper rod, to which was connected the aluminum rod. After disconnection of the current, aluminum did not contain any marking of cupper. From this experiment one concludes, that ions of the crystal grating do not take account in the propagation of electric current. Mandelstam and Papalexi rounded with a high rate a bobbin with a great number of thin conductor coil, and then quickly interrupted a rotation. This was accompanied by the short time pulls of electrical current. From this result was concluded, that electrical current is the electron flow. To our mined, more correctly would be the conclusion that electrons participate in the propagation of the electrical current.

It is possible to propose, that electrons are dispose between ions of the crystal grating. Large propagated idea, that electrons in metals are enough free, and they form the "electron clouds". This conception is an idealization, which is far enough from the real picture. In reality the crystal grating have metal ions, electrons are near them, and cannot be moved far from metallic ions. After the secluding of electric circuit and overcoming of circuit resistance, i.e. at the enough "driving force" ether becomes very mobile, and the rate of the current propagation becomes equal the heat rate of ether c.

With account of stated ideas, it is possible to propose that electrical current is a flow of ether and electrons, in which electrons propagate by the stated "relay-race"

Fig. 9. Model of propagation of electrical current in metal

mechanism, and etherons move continuously (fig.9). In §1 we pointed that ether actively interacts with electrons. Under action of ether electrons in a shape of MB round and create in the viscous less medium radial ether flows.

Model of the electric current running in the conductor is possible to propose in the following view. The conductor may be presented as a vacuumed tube, filled by ether and metal ions, with length l and section S. In this tube "fasten" separate ions of  

Fig. 10. Picture of propagation of electrical current in the region of conductor

the crystal target (fig. 10). Obtained results give the possibility to calculate the relation of etherons and electrons at the electrical current runs [3]. In general case number of electrons, which pass through the section for 1 sec. at the electrical current I, is Ne = I ·NA /F (hear NA is Avogadro' number, F - Faraday' constant). The mass of ether passing through section for 1 sec. at the electrical current I is Mε = Ne·cSeε (where Ne is the number of electrons passing through section for 1 sec., c is the rate of light, Se - section of electron, ρε is density of ether, mε is mass of 1 etheron [3]). For a current I number of etherons passing for 1 sec. is Nε = Ne·cSeε/mε. Thus, for a relation of etherons and electron at the electrical current runs the following formula was obtained:

                                   β = Nε/Ne = cSe ρε/ mε.

After substitution we obtain: β = 3·108· 3·10-34· 2,97·10-9 /5,18?10-40 ≈ 5·105. Other words, at the first approach, on one electron, not dependent on the electrical current, for account β ≈ 5·105 of etherons. Indeed, from general ideas, it was possible to propose, that etherons number Nε = βNe must be on several orders of dimesion more then quantity of electrons Ne, passing through the section. But the hall mass of etherons is important less then considered electrons mass, because the mass of one etheron is less then the mass of one electron in 1,76.109 times [3]. Accordingly, for some physical processes (electrolysis, heat processes etc.) is possible to take not in account the action of ether. For these processes ether uselessly disperse in space. In other processes (electromagnet, electromotor etc.) the action of ether is prevalent.

Creation of the difference of potentials in the conductor between two sections 1 and 2 is possible to present as a creation of pressures difference in ether, i.e. disturbance in ether Δpε between these sections. Atmosphere pressure p and ether pressure pε do not interact one with another [3] because of they are a result of interaction of molecules and etherons correspondingly, i.e. interaction between particles, which dimension and mass differs on many order of dimensions. Force of current (the quantity of electricity which is transferred in 1 sec), is equal I = enSc, where ? is a charge of electron, n is a quantity of charges in the unity of volume, S is a cross-section of conductor. The quantity of transferred at the time t electricity is q = enSct. Let's consider that the perturbation in ether between the sections 1 and 2 is equal to the difference of pressures Δpε. Let us denote A/q ≡ U. It is known from the course of electrotechnics that relation U is electrical tension between sections 1 and 2. After substitution formulas for the work A = ΔpεSct and a charge q = enSct, we obtain the formula connecting electric tension with the difference of pressures in ether (disturbance in ether):

U = Δpε/en.

So, disturbance in ether, leading to arising of electrical current, is proportional to the total number of charges in the considered volume and arising electrical potential. It is possible to obtain the formula for the Ohm' law: the relation U/I must be constant, not dependent on the concrete parameters of electrical current: U/I = R = const. Substituting in the last formula U and I, we obtain the formula for electrical resistance: R = U/I = Δpε/(e2n2Sc). It is possible to determine the formula for the perturbation in ether:

                               Δpε = enU .

Thus, the disturbance in ether leading to the electrical current arising, is proportional to hall of number of electrical charges Ne = en in the considered volume and the arising electrical potential.

 

References

1. A. Einstein. Collected works, v. 1-4, M., Nauka, 1967.

2. M.A. Margulis. Model of ether and electron. M., Sputnik, 2010.

3. M.A. Margulis. Ether and charged particles (how is constructed our world), M. N.E. Bauman MGTU, 2011.

4. N.I. Koshkin, M.G. Shirkevich. Reference book on elementary physics. M., Physmatgiz, 1962.

5. Physical Encyclopedia, ed. A.M.Prohorov, v.5, M., BRE, 1998.





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Margulis, M. (2012). Electricity and magnetism. PHILICA.COM Article number 324.


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